Helps pick up and put away toys.
Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development.
Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences.
Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions. Genetic-environmental correlations are circumstances in which genetic factors make certain experiences more likely to occur.
In all of these cases, it becomes difficult to know whether child characteristics were shaped by genetic factors, by experiences, or by a combination of the two.
What relevant aspects of the individual change over a period of time? What are the rate and speed of development? What are the mechanisms of development — what aspects of experience and heredity cause developmental change?
Are there typical individual differences in the relevant developmental changes? Are there population differences Child development patterns of development this aspect of development for example, differences in the development of boys and of girls?
Empirical research that attempts to answer these questions may follow a number of patterns. Initially, observational research in naturalistic conditions may be needed to develop a narrative describing and defining an aspect of developmental change, such as changes in reflex reactions in the first year.
Such studies examine the characteristics of children at different ages. Some child development studies examine the effects of experience or heredity by comparing characteristics of different groups of children in a necessarily non-randomized design. Child development stages Milestones are changes in specific physical and mental abilities such as walking and understanding language that mark the end of one developmental period and the beginning of another.
Studies of the accomplishment of many developmental tasks have established typical chronological ages associated with developmental milestones. However, there is considerable variation in the achievement of milestones, even between children with developmental trajectories within the typical range.
Some milestones are more variable than others; for example, receptive speech indicators do not show much variation among children with typical hearing, but expressive speech milestones can be quite variable.
Prevention of and early intervention in developmental delay are significant topics in the study of child development. An example of a milestone would be eye-hand coordination, which includes a child's increasing ability to manipulate objects in a coordinated manner.
Increased knowledge of age-specific milestones allows parents and others to keep track of appropriate development.
The Heckman's chart shows that the highest return of investment in education is maximum during the early years age 1 to 3 years old and decreases to a plateau during the school-aged years and adolescence. Here are descriptions of the development of a number of physical and mental characteristics.
As stature and weight increase, the individual's proportions also change, from the relatively large head and small torso and limbs of the neonateto the adult's relatively small head and long torso and limbs.
Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of physical growth is rapid in the months after birth, then slows, so birth weight is doubled in the first four months, tripled by age 12 months, but not quadrupled until 24 months. At birth, head size is already relatively near to that of an adult, but the lower parts of the body are much smaller than adult size.
In the course of development, then, the head grows relatively little, and torso and limbs undergo a great deal of growth. However, genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate.
Poor nutrition and frequent injury and disease can reduce the individual's adult stature, but the best environment cannot cause growth to a greater stature than is determined by heredity.All children grow and develop in similar patterns, but each child develops at her or his own pace.
Every child has her or his own interests, temperament, style of social interaction and approach to learning. Understanding the ages and stages of child development helps parents understand the changes. Patterns of Child Development The various aspects of child development encompass physical growth, emotional and psychological changes, and social adjustments.
A great many determinants influence patterns of development and change. Patterns of Child Development The various aspects of child development encompass physical growth, emotional and psychological changes, and social adjustments.
A great many determinants influence patterns of development and change. Children with autism do not follow the typical patterns of child development.
In some children, future problems can often be seen at birth. In some children, future problems can often be seen at birth. Patterns of Development Below is a list of the various patterns of development most frequently found in expository writing. Included are explanations and possible topics for each method of development.
The early years of a child’s life are very important for his or her health and development. Parents, health professionals, educators, and others can work together as partners to help children grow up to reach their full potential.